Final energy use in Hungary has experienced several major reductions: first in the early 1990s, due to the restructuring of the economy; then households energy use was reduced significantly in 2005–2007, as a consumer response to the increase of end use gas prices; and finally again in 2008–2009 as a consequence of the economic recession.

As the most energy intensive country in Central and Eastern Europe, Ukraine considers the experience of Visegrad Group countries with energy efficiency to be very valuable, due to the many similarities between Ukraine and these countries in terms of economics and household stock. Facing challenges to its very existence, in 2014–2016 Ukraine drastically reduced its consumption of primer energies (gas, electricity, oil, and oil products). The main reasons for this were a fall in economic activity, the annexation of Crimea by Russia, and the military defensive in the East, where a significant portion of heavy industries and mining enterprises found themselves behind the frontlines in the uncontrolled territories.

Poland is a very energy intensive country. It consumes roughly 150 kg of oil equivalent for every 1000 euros earned, above the EU average. Although Poland has reduced much of its energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions since the end of the communist era, it still uses a lot of energy produced by burning coal, oil and gas. Transforming itself into a low-emission economy is not an easy task for such a big economy as this and one dependent on fossil fuels, which are still mined within the country.

In the energy policy of the Slovak Republic,1 there are four key pillars – energy security, competitiveness, a sustainable energy sector, and energy efficiency. At the same time, priorities are set out for particular areas, one of these being a further reduction of energy consumption more in line with the EU average. This is particularly important for countries with energy-intensive industries, or with a high dependence on the import of primary energy sources, such as Slovakia.

When analyzing the energy situation within the Czech Republic, it’s clear that the country is fairly energy intensive. In terms of crude energy intensity (gross energy consumption over gross domestic product (GDP), it is the third most energy-intensive EU member country, with a 2014 energy intensity level of 256.3 kg of oil equivalent per 1,000 euros of GDP – twice the EU average.1 All this is true despite the Czech economy having undergone a major transition since the 1990s, with its level of energy intensity decreasing significantly over that time.2 However, a lot of effort needs to be invested in achieving the targets set out in line with the 2020 goal of a 20 per cent reduction of energy consumption across the EU.

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79020 Lviv, Ukraine

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